IntraUterine Insemination involves preparing a semen sample in a simple way, so that higher concentrations of the most motile sperms are selected and injected through the cervix around the time of ovulation in order to achieve high rates of pregnancy. IUI is a simple OPD procedure , not a surgery . There is no need of any sedation or anaesthesia or painful injections . It is less expensive and less invasive than IVF/ICSI .
In general, artificial insemination is used when:
Cervical mucus is scanty or hostile to sperm . In IUI, sperm directly reaches the uterus, bypassing the cervix and the cervical mucus.
Husband having a low sperm count
Male infertility due to antibodies to his own sperm.
Ejaculation difficulties due to vaginal muscle contractions or psychological problems.
Retrograde ejaculation( where the semen goes back into the bladder rather than being expelled outside )
When natural intercourse not feasible due to disability, injury or premature ejaculation.
Male Partner Requirenments
A qualitative semen analysis is done prior to IUI to reveal normal functioning in terms of: Sperm count Mobility (movement of sperm) Sperm morphology (shape of sperm)A qualitative semen analysis is done prior to IUI to reveal normal functioning in terms of: Sperm count Mobility (movement of sperm) Sperm morphology (shape of sperm)
Female Partner Requirenments
Because fertilisation and conception are still expected to take place as normal, the female partner will be tested to ensure that she has: A normal ovulation cycle Open fallopian tubes A normal uterine cavity
Once ovulation is achieved, male partner needs to produce a semen sample . A thorough washing procedure is done in andrology laboratory which helps to concentrate the good sperms into a smaller amount of fluid. The physician draws the washed semen into a syringe with a flexible catheter attached to it (IUI Catheter ) & the washed semen is slowly injected into the uterine cavity The woman rests for half an hour .
You should undergo a pregnancy test two weeks after the procedure if there is no bleeding or else you may contact your consultant on the 2nd day of your period .
Second IUI :
Second IUI is done between 12 to 48 hours after the first IUI as time of ovulation is difficult to pinpoint . Intercourse at home is also recommended in between inseminations to increase the chances of conception.
Success Rate of IUI :
Women under the age of 35 usually have higher success rates than women over age 35, but the average success rate for IUI ranges from 10-20% in one cycle. This success rate depends primarily on the health of both the sperm and the woman.
Complications of IUI:
The risk for complications is very low with IUI . The main risks are some discomfort such as cramping, minor injury to the cervix that leads to bleeding or spotting, or introduction of infection. There are also risks of hyperstimulation associated with the use of ovulation induction medications . Proper technique and adequate monitoring reduce risks.
AID (Artificial Insemination by Donor) or TDI (Therapeutic Donor Insemination): Some male partners don’t have a single sperm in their semen (Azoospermia) . In these cases, the treatment may also be done using donor sperms. This procedure is called AID (Artificial Insemination by Donor) or TDI (Therapeutic Donor Insemination).
If no pregnancy is achieved after three to six IUI's, your fertility consultant may recommend more advanced treatments such as IVF or ICSI .